Articles, Newsletters & Advisories
December 4, 2020Governor Wolf Paves the Way for New Plastics Recycling and Manufacturing in Pennsylvania
On November 25, 2020, Governor Tom Wolf signed ACT 127 of 2020 (House Bill 1808), which, when effective on January 24, 2021, will amend Pennsylvania’s Solid Waste Management Act (SWMA) to support advanced plastics recycling operations in the Commonwealth by exempting qualifying operations from the waste management requirements. ACT 127 accomplishes this by amending the SWMA to exempt the conversion of plastics at facilities with advanced recycling processes from the waste “processing” and “treatment” requirements under the SWMA and its implementing regulations. These facilities turn hard-to-recycle plastics (e.g., plastic bags, wrappers, PVC 3, LDPE 4, PP 5, PS 6, Other 7) into useable raw materials and products.
Specifically, ACT 127 amends the SWMA to define:“Post-use polymers” – post-use plastics from residential, municipal, or commercial sources that would not otherwise be recycled and, when converted using advanced recycling, are not considered waste. “Advanced recycling” – a manufacturing process whereby post-use polymers are converted into basic hydrocarbon raw materials, feedstocks, chemicals, liquid fuels, waxes, lubricants, and other related products. Conversion processes include, but are not limited to, pyrolysis, gasification, depolymerization, catalytic cracking, reforming, and hydrogenation. “Advanced recycling facility” – receives, separates, stores, and converts post-use polymers into raw materials and products.
Facilities coming under the exclusion are not regulated as waste “processing” or “treatment” facilities but still need to comply with all other applicable environmental requirements (e.g., air, water). Facilities that only perform a portion of these services (e.g., segregation facilities) do not qualify for the exemption from the waste requirements.
ACT 127 is likely to attract new advanced recycling businesses to Pennsylvania and thereby foster job creation, drive investment and innovation, and create regulatory certainty, with the added benefit of recycling more plastics. Conversely, many of the products developed from the...
December 2, 2020Fourth Circuit Rules Oil and Gas Lease Allows for the Deduction of Post-Production Costs Pursuant to West Virginia Law
The United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit (Fourth Circuit) has vacated a judgment of the United States District Court for the Northern District of West Virginia that held an oil and gas lease failed to sufficiently indicate the method for calculating post-production costs to be deducted from royalty payments pursuant to West Virginia law. The lease provided that the lessor would bear some part of the post-production costs and contained a detailed list of post-production expenses that were deductible from royalties, but the District Court held the accounting methodology was not sufficiently disclosed. In Young v. Equinor USA Onshore Properties, Inc., No. 19-1334 (4th Cir. Dec. 1, 2020), the Fourth Circuit held that West Virginia law does not require that an oil and gas lease set out an “Einsteinian proof” for calculating post-production costs and, in fact, could be satisfied by a simple formula. In holding that the lease sufficiently indicated the method for calculation in compliance with West Virginia law, the Fourth Circuit explained that the method was to add all the identified, reasonable, and actually incurred post-production costs, deduct them from the lessee’s gross proceeds, and then adjust for the lessor’s share of the total pooled acreage and royalty rate. This opinion also questions the continued viability of the West Virginia Supreme Court’s holding in the Estate of Tawney v. Columbia Nat. Res., LLC, 219 W. Va. 266, 633 S.E.2d 22 (2006) in light of critical comments in a subsequent royalty case decided by the West Virginia Supreme Court in 2017, Leggett v. EQT Prod. Co., 238 W. Va. 264, 800 S.E.2d 850 (2017).
If you have any questions about the Young decision or its impact on the oil and gas industry, please contact Timothy Miller...
November 30, 2020Showcasing expertise: Virgin’s hyperloop project highlights region’s emerging technology capabilities
(by Sue Ostrowski featuring Moore Capito)
West Virginia scored a huge win when it landed the contract for the high-tech Virgin Hyperloop Certification Center in October. Now the state — and the region, including Pittsburgh — are looking to build on that success.
“We’re hoping this is going to be a jumping off point,” says Moore Capito, a shareholder at Babst Calland who also serves in the West Virginia House of Delegates. “Any time you can lend a huge name like Virgin, it certainly gives the region an increased amount of credibility.”
Smart Business spoke with Capito about what the project means for the region and how its success could attract other big projects — and jobs — to West Virginia and Pennsylvania.
What is the Virgin Hyperloop Project?
In general, a hyperloop is an experimental, next-generation mode of transportation that will transport passengers through a network of under- and above-ground tubes, capable of reaching speeds of 670 mph. The goal is to transform transportation, and the broader economy, so that travel that previously took hours will instead take minutes.
More specifically, the Virgin Hyperloop Project, with substantial investments from Sir Richard Branson and DP World Ports, is headquartered in Los Angeles and has been primarily testing the technology in Las Vegas. As part of its growth, Virgin sought a location for a certification center to serve not only as a venue for moving the technology forward but as a place where they could create a regulatory framework.
Regulations cover other modes of transportation — air, rail, sea, cars, trucks — but hyperloop is a grey area. This center will build out that regulatory framework around this new mode of transportation to certify that it is viable for commercial use.
What does the project entail?
The project is located on 800 acres where, in addition to the center,...
November 19, 2020FTC Issues Settlement Requiring Zoom to Implement Robust Information Security Program in Response to Years of Deceptive Security Practices
Emerging Technologies Perspective
(by Ashleigh Krick)
On November 9, 2020, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) announced a settlement agreement with Zoom Video Communications, Inc. (Zoom) that arose from alleged violations that Zoom engaged in a series of deceptive and unfair practices that undermined user security.
The FTC found that Zoom made several representations across its platform regarding the strength of its privacy and security measures used to protect users’ personal information that were untrue and provided users with a false sense of security. Specifically, the FTC found that Zoom made multiple statements regarding “end-to-end” and “AES 256-bit” encryption used to secure videoconference communications. However, Zoom did not provide end-to-end encryption for any Zoom meeting conducted outside of Zoom’s “Connecter” product. And, Zoom used a lower level of encryption that did not provide for the same level of security as “AES 256-bit” encryption. The FTC also found that Zoom stored meeting recordings unencrypted and for a longer period than Zoom claimed in its Security Guide. And, Zoom circumvented browser privacy and security safeguards through software updates without notice to users and without establishing replacement safeguards.
November 12, 2020Allegheny County and Pittsburgh CROWN Acts Prohibit Hairstyle Discrimination
(by Alexandra Farone)
At the end of October 2020, the Allegheny County Council and Pittsburgh City Council each passed bills entitled “Creating a Respectful and Open World for Natural Hair Acts,” prohibiting hairstyle-based discrimination in employment, housing, and public accommodations. Protective and cultural hair textures and hairstyles, including braids, cornrows, locs, Bantu knots, Afros, and twists, are now protected under these new laws, known as the CROWN Acts. Employers in Allegheny County should review their dress codes and grooming standards to ensure compliance with the CROWN Acts.
The two CROWN Acts are nearly identical. The Allegheny County CROWN Act defines “hairstyle” as “any characteristic, texture, form, or manner of wearing an individual’s hair if such characteristic, texture, form or manner is commonly associated with a particular race, national origin, gender, gender identity or expression, sexual orientation, or religion.”
The Pittsburgh CROWN Act defines “hairstyle” as “hair texture and styles of hair of any length, such as protective or cultural hairstyles, natural hairstyles, and other forms of hair presentation.” Mayor Bill Peduto submitted the CROWN Act for the City Council’s consideration earlier in October, citing the 2019 report of Pittsburgh’s Gender Equity Commission that found inequities and barriers facing people of color—especially women—in the city regarding their hairstyles and natural hair.
Individuals within the City of Pittsburgh seeking to make claims of discrimination based on hairstyle can report the matter to the City’s Commission on Human Relations, the agency tasked with enforcing the CROWN Act. The Commission has released extensive guidance for information regarding the CROWN Act in the employment, housing, and public accommodation sectors.
If you have any questions about the impact of the CROWN Acts, particularly on your existing personnel policies, please contact Alexandra G. Farone at (412) 394-6521 or email@example.com.
November 10, 2020PHMSA proposes integrity management alternative for class location changes
The PIOGA Press
On October 14, the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) containing potential changes to the federal gas pipeline safety regulations and reporting requirements. Citing PHMSA’s experience administering special permits, as well as the information provided in earlier studies and from various stakeholders, the NPRM proposed to amend the regulations to allow operators to apply integrity management (IM) principles to certain gas transmission line segments that experience class location changes. Comments on the NPRM are due December 14.
PHMSA relied heavily on the conditions included in class location special permits in developing the proposed rules. The IM alternative only would be available to pipeline segments that experience an increase in population density from a Class 1 location to a Class 3 location, subject to certain eligibility criteria. Operators using the IM alternative would be required to conduct an initial integrity assessment within 24 months of the class location change and apply the IM requirements in 49 C.F.R. Part 192, Subpart O to the affected segment. Operators also would be required to implement additional preventative and mitigative measures for cathodic protection, line markers, depth-of-cover, right-of-way patrolling, leak surveys and valves.
PHMSA’s decision to propose an IM alternative for managing class location changes is a significant step forward for pipeline safety. The class location regulations are based largely on concepts established decades ago, and the pipeline industry long has advocated for an approach that reflects modern assessment tools and technologies. While the NPRM does not necessarily satisfy all of the industry’s objectives, PHMSA’s proposal sets the stage for the next phase of the rulemaking process and potential development of a final rule.
In July 2018, the agency published an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) asking for public...
November 6, 2020Pa. Amends Minimum Wage Act OT Requirements to Exceed Federal Salary Threshold
The Legal Intelligencer
With approximately 90,700 minimum wage employees in Pennsylvania, it is of little surprise that that minimum wage laws are a frequent topic of conversation and debate. However, most often, the discussion is limited to the wage itself, and the nuances of the laws governing employee compensation are frequently glossed over. The statutes and regulations setting the minimum wage, the Pennsylvania Minimum Wage Act of 1968 (PMWA), 43 P.S. Sections 333.101 et seq., 34 Pa. A.D.C. Section 231.1 et seq., and the federal Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), 29 U.S.C.A. Sections 201 et seq. and 29 C.F.R. Ch. V, Pt. 510 et seq., both do much more than simply establishing a minimum rate of pay, and the other requirements are of no less import to Pennsylvania employers’ legal obligations, liability, or bottom line. This year, while debates over the minimum wage were had at dinner tables and debate stages across the nation, both the Pennsylvania and federal overtime regulations were quietly amended to cover more employees, and thus effect more employers than they ever have before.
Historically, the minimum wage and overtime requirements have always gone hand-in-hand. The FLSA was passed in 1938 to establish minimum standards for workers engaged directly or indirectly in interstate commerce. In addition to establishing a minimum wage, it also established the maximum workweek, overtime pay requirements and more. The PMWA, enacted in 1968, largely mirrors the FLSA, and covers most private employers, including those also subject to the FLSA. Where both the PMWA and FLSA apply, an employer is required to comply with both laws, or the stricter requirement favoring the employee. The PMWA sets the Pennsylvania minimum wage equal to that under the FLSA, and both require nonexempt employees to receive overtime pay equal to one and...
November 2, 2020Corporate venture capital funds can give companies an edge
(by Sue Ostrowski featuring Sara Antol)
Corporate venture capital (CVC) funds are gaining in popularity as established companies seek a competitive advantage in the marketplace.
“More large public and private companies are investing in startups, frequently with an end goal of making an acquisition,” says Sara Antol, a shareholder at Babst Calland PC.
Smart Business spoke with Antol about the rewards — and challenges — of these investments.
What is the difference between a venture capital fund and a CVC fund?
With a venture capital fund, the fund is formed with the sole purpose of investment and is looking for a positive financial return within a relatively short period of time.
With a CVC fund, an operating company puts funding into a startup, generally in its market space or a space the company wants to enter. It still seeks a financial return, but the investment is more likely strategically driven. The end goal is frequently to eventually acquire the startup, but the CVC fund can hedge its bets by first making an investment.
CVC investors want to know the startup’s strategy and be involved, and they may want a bigger voice than a typical venture fund would expect. The CVC fund generally avoids legal control — it wants the ability to make a difference but not to affect the company’s overall growth curve.
Recent reports have shown that CVC funds have accounted for almost 25 percent of all venture investments in 2020. It could be because technology companies have rebounded during the pandemic, giving them more access to capital. It may be that private equity has pulled back, creating more capacity for CVC investment.
Whatever the reason, it’s becoming more common for forward-thinking companies to make these types of investments as part of their strategy.
What are the challenges of this type of investment?
There can be a struggle between...
October 29, 2020Financial Sector Initiatives to Combat Climate Change Gather Momentum
The Legal Intelligencer
(by Ben Clapp)
In September, the Market Risk Advisory Committee of the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) issued a significant, yet perhaps under-publicized, report titled “Managing Climate Risk in the U.S. Financial System.” The report identified several key findings, including that: climate change “poses a major risk to the stability of the U.S. financial system and to its ability to sustain the American economy;” “financial markets will only be able to channel resources efficiently to activities that reduce greenhouse gas emissions if an economywide price on carbon is in place at a level that reflects the true social cost of those emissions; and “disclosure of information on material, climate-relevant financial risks … has not resulted in disclosures of a scope, breadth, and quality to be sufficiently useful to market participants and regulators.” CFTC, Managing Climate Risk in the U.S. Financial System at i-iv (Sept. 2020). The report recommends that the U.S. establish a price on carbon that is consistent with the Paris Agreement’s goal of limiting global temperature rise this century to less than two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.
The report is particularly notable for its blunt assessment of the risks posed by climate change to the underpinnings of the U.S. economy, and its conclusion that comprehensive federal climate change legislation is required to mitigate these risks. (For those wondering at the unlikelihood of a report such as this being published by a federal agency in a presidential administration that has demonstrated a marked tendency toward deregulation, the report was not voted on by the commissioners of the CFTC and has been characterized as representing the perspective of private sector committee members.) Other federal agencies have been reluctant to take additional steps to address climate change investment risks. The Securities and Exchange Commission, for example, resisted...
October 27, 2020Introducing PIPES Tracker – Pipeline Safety Database Tool
Babst Calland and our affiliated Alternative Legal Service Provider, Solvaire, announce the availability of PIPES TRACKER™– the most comprehensive and easy-to-use pipeline safety regulatory database search and tracking tool available on the market today.
Now, pipeline operators finally have an easy way to search and track enforcement cases issued by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA).
With PIPES TRACKER™ you can:
√ Quickly search and identify cases involving a particular citation
√ Evaluate annual reports on developments and enforcement trends
√ Easily search and verify data for counsel, operators and consultants
√ Track PHMSA cases by citation, region, date, operator name and current status
Unlike our competitors, PIPES TRACKER™ is:
√ Fully keyword searchable
√ Updated monthly
√ The most affordable pipeline safety regulatory database tool on the market today
√ The only pipeline safety regulatory database search and tracking tool developed, managed and operated by lawyers
Explore Solvaire and PIPES TRACKER™ – the only tool developed by former PHMSA attorneys who have first-hand knowledge and experience with the PHMSA enforcement process.
Please contact Brianne Kurdock at (202) 774-7016 or firstname.lastname@example.org for a customized demonstration of PIPES TRACKER™.
October 25, 2020The Courts Are Open, but Will They Enforce Your Noncompete Agreement?
The Legal Intelligencer
(by Molly E. Meacham)
It is a familiar scene to many employers. After searching for the right individual to fill an important position, a promising candidate emerges. The new employee will have top-level access to confidential information and customers, and their offer letter anticipates that the employee will sign restrictive covenants including noncompetition and nonsolicitation agreements as a condition of employment. Current operations are a bit chaotic—including some remote work—so the agreement isn’t provided prior to the first day of employment. The employee knows they will have to sign eventually, but the employer doesn’t press the issue and allows time for the new employee to review the terms. Is this a valid and enforceable restrictive covenant agreement? According to the Pennsylvania Supreme Court’s June 16, decision in Rullex v. Tel-Stream, the answer is no.
A restrictive covenant such as a noncompetition or nonsolicitation agreement is a contract that must be supported by adequate consideration to be enforceable in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania views starting a new job as sufficient consideration, provided that the agreement is executed at the start of the employment relationship. In Rullex, the subcontractor in question was aware that a non-competition agreement would be required as part of the relationship, in which the subcontractor would be performing cellphone tower work for a telecommunications company. Although the subcontractor was given a copy of the agreement on his first day of work, he was allowed to take time to review it and did not return a signed copy until at least two months later. The subcontractor later performed cellphone tower work for a competitor of the telecommunications company, resulting in a lawsuit seeking to prevent him from working with that competitor or any other competitors of the telecommunications company.
In its decision, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court considered whether these factual circumstances constituted...
October 20, 2020PHMSA Proposes Integrity Management Alternative for Class Location Changes
Pipeline Safety Alert
On October 14, 2020, the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) containing potential changes to the federal gas pipeline safety regulations and reporting requirements. Citing PHMSA’s experience administering special permits, as well as the information provided in earlier studies and from various stakeholders, the NPRM proposed to amend the regulations to allow operators to apply integrity management (IM) principles to certain gas transmission line segments that experience class location changes. Comments on the NPRM are due December 14, 2020.
PHMSA relied heavily on the conditions included in class location special permits in developing the proposed rules. The IM alternative would only be available to pipeline segments that experience an increase in population density from a Class 1 location to a Class 3 location, subject to certain eligibility criteria. Operators using the IM alternative would be required to conduct an initial integrity assessment within 24 months of the class location change and apply the IM requirements in 49 C.F.R. Part 192, Subpart O to the affected segment. Operators would also be required to implement additional preventative and mitigative measures for cathodic protection, line markers, depth-of-cover, right-of-way patrolling, leak surveys, and valves.
PHMSA’s decision to propose an IM alternative for managing class location changes is a significant step forward for pipeline safety. The class location regulations are largely based on concepts established decades ago, and the pipeline industry has long advocated for an approach that reflects modern assessment tools and technologies. While the NPRM does not necessarily satisfy all of the industry’s objectives, PHMSA’s proposal sets the stage for the next phase of the rulemaking process and potential development of a final rule.
In July 2018, the Agency published an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (
October 16, 2020Court Reinforces High Standard for Both Use and Dimensional Variance Applications
The Legal Intelligencer
In exceptional circumstances, where strict application of the zoning ordinance to a particular parcel would result in an unnecessary hardship, a variance acts as a “relief valve;” it allows a deviation from the strict terms of a zoning ordinance to permit the owner's reasonable use of the property.
While landowners have a constitutionally protected right to use and enjoy their property as they desire, that right is not without legal, or practical, limits. Many development plans, whether for a large shopping complex or a small garden shed, are thwarted by the limitations of the relevant zoning ordinance, the unique physical characteristics of the property, or both. Most of the time, the landowner must simply revert to a plan that fits within the confines of both law and land. However, in exceptional circumstances, where strict application of the zoning ordinance to a particular parcel would result in an unnecessary hardship, a variance acts as a “relief valve;” it allows a deviation from the strict terms of a zoning ordinance to permit the owner’s reasonable use of the property.
Variance applications fall under the exclusive jurisdiction of the municipality’s zoning hearing board, a quasi-judicial entity appointed by the governing body. A zoning hearing board may grant variances only under exceptional circumstances and an applicant faces a heavy burden of both proof and production. The Municipalities Planning Code (the MPC), 53 P.S. §10910.2(a), which sets forth standards and procedures for zoning in all Pennsylvania municipalities except Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, authorizes a municipality’s zoning hearing board to hear requests for variances based on allegations of unnecessary hardship. A zoning hearing board may grant a variance provided the following findings are made:That there are unique physical circumstances or conditions, including irregularity, narrowness, or shallowness...
October 13, 2020A September foreshadowing: EQB adopts the proposed RGGI rulemaking and the governor vetoes House Bill 2025
The PIOGA Press
September saw Pennsylvania take two major steps toward locking the Commonwealth into the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI). On September 15, the Environmental Quality Board (EQB) voted 13-6 to adopt proposed cap-and-trade regulations to limit carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel-fired electric generating units greater than 25 megawatts capacity. Nine days later on September 24, Governor Wolf vetoed House Bill 2025 that would have prohibited the Department of Environmental Protection from taking any action to control or limit CO2 emissions without General Assembly approval.
Since it seems unlikely at this point that the General Assembly will be able to stop the administration’s effort to adopt RGGI regulations by the end of 2021, the next several months will be critical to comment on, shape or oppose these regulations.
The proposed RGGI regulations
Governor Wolf’s October 3, 2019, Executive Order No. 2019-07 directed DEP to develop a proposed rulemaking to abate, control or limit CO2 emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric power generators (EGU) and present it to the EQB by July 31, 2020. The deadline later was extended to September 15, 2020. As presented to and considered by the EQB on September 15, the proposed RGGI regulations would amend 25 Pa. Code Chapter 145 (relating to interstate pollution transport reduction) and add Subchapter E (relating to a budget trading program) to establish a program to limit the emissions of CO2 from a fossil-fuel-fired EGU with a nameplate capacity of 25 MW or greater that sends more than 10 percent of its annual gross generation to the electric grid. The proposed rulemaking is intended to reduce CO2 emissions as a contributor to adverse climate change and establish a CO2 budget trading program that can link with similar regulations in the 10 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states that comprise...
October 6, 2020D.C. Circuit to Decide EPA’s Authority to Regulate Greenhouse Gas Emissions
The Legal Intelligencer
(by Gary Steinbauer)
Lawsuits pending before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit are likely to shape the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) authority to regulate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stationary sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA). These legal challenges involve two high-profile CAA deregulatory actions: The EPA’s Affordable Clean Energy rule (“Repeal of the Clean Power Plan; Emission Guidelines for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Existing Electric Utility Generating Units; Revisions to Emission Guidelines Implementing Regulations,” 84 Fed. Reg. 32520 (July 8, 2019)) (ACE Rule) and the EPA’s rule eliminating the transportation and storage segments from and rescinding methane requirements in the new source performance standards for the oil and gas industry (“Oil and Natural Gas Sector: Emission Standards for New, Reconstructed, and Modified Sources Review Rule,” 85 Fed. Reg. 57,018 (Sept. 14, 2020)) (policy Amendments rule) (collectively referred to as the rules). The rules repeal and replace Obama-era GHG emission regulations promulgated pursuant to Section 111 of the CAA, 42 U.S.C. Section 7411.
Section 111 of the CAA grants the EPA authority to establish national performance standards for categories of sources that cause or significantly contribute to “air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare.” Section 111 of the CAA establishes separate regulatory tracks for new, reconstructed and modified sources and existing sources that would otherwise qualify as regulated new sources. For new, reconstructed, or modified sources, the CAA requires the EPA to establish new source performance standards (NSPS), representing the “best system of emission reduction” (BSER), that apply directly to the particular source category. See 42 U.S.C. Section 7411(b). For existing sources, the EPA is to establish BSER-based emission guidelines that are to be applied through state-issued performance standards. See 42 U.S.C. Section 7411(d).The Policy Amendments Rule—Regulating GHG Emissions...
September 27, 2020Keep proprietary information safe with remote employees
(by Sue Ostrowski featuring Carl Ronald)
When the economy started shutting down in March as a result of COVID-19 and employees began working remotely, keeping intellectual property and proprietary information safe didn’t top the list of companies’ concerns.
“Some businesses didn’t put procedures in place or have appropriate training classes because no one really thought the pandemic would extend as long as it has,” says Carl Ronald, shareholder at Babst Calland. “They didn’t instruct employees on how to identify important confidential information or safeguard certain proprietary documents when working from home.”
Smart Business spoke with Ronald about how to keep your company’s proprietary information safe when employees are working outside the office.
What approach should employers take to protect proprietary information?
There are different levels of confidentiality with different information, so I like to begin by identifying the information you have and classifying it accordingly. Some things are sensitive and you’d prefer them not to be disclosed, such as manufacturing schedules, production forecasts, or discounts for specific customers. But while those are things you don’t want your competitors to know, it isn’t going to be disastrous to the company if they are inadvertently disclosed.
Other information, such as a trade secret or the development of a new process that gives you a competitive advantage can devastate your business if it gets out. So, the first step is to identify the information you have and label it appropriately.
Second, businesses should train employees on the different categories of information and make sure they are treating each properly. Make sure everyone understands the importance of keeping information safe and reiterate basic steps to create barriers to access, such as not sharing passwords and using privacy screens when laptops are used in public.Third, identify employees who have access to confidential information and make sure they are bound by confidentiality...
September 17, 2020Recent Developments in Medical Marijuana Jurisprudence—in Pa. and Beyond
The Legal Intelligencer
(by John McCreary)
This is the third installment of the author’s episodic examination of the employment law implications of the legalization of medical marijuana. The first installment appeared in The Legal Intelligencer’s Feb. 9, 2017, online edition—shortly after Pennsylvania’s Medical Marijuana Act (MMA) became effective—and described some of the ambiguities of and practical difficulties with the MMA’s employment provisions. This was followed by an article in the March 21, 2019, edition of The Legal surveying how jurisprudence from other jurisdictions had addressed some of the issues identified in the first article. There now have been a few Pennsylvania decisions on the subject, which along with the courts elsewhere are slowly creating a body of law defining rights and obligations under the medical marijuana laws. From review of these recent cases we can conclude that the courts are sympathetic to medical marijuana patients, but to this point they have yet to squarely address the significant job safety issues likely to be encountered in the workplace, issues recognized in the Pennsylvania MMA as well as in the analogous legislation from other states.
Two Pennsylvania decisions of note provide insight into the approach of the commonwealth’s courts to the issues raised by the use of medical marijuana.
Palmiter v. Commonwealth Health Systems, No. 19-CV-1315 (Lackawanna Cty. 2019) found an implied cause of action to enforce the MMA’s antidiscrimination provision. That section of the MMA creates a protected class of employees “certified to use medical marijuana,” who are protected against employment discrimination because of such “status” as a certified user. See 35 Pa.C.S.A. Section 10231.2103(b)(1). But uniquely among the commonwealth’s employee-protective laws, the MMA does not provide statutory remedies, nor does it explicitly confer jurisdiction on the courts to address violations. This statutory insufficiency is in marked contrast to, for example, the Pennsylvania...
September 10, 2020EPA finalizes revisions to oil and natural gas New Source Performance Standards
The PIOGA Press
On August 13, the U.S. Environmental Protection issued two prepublication final rules related to the New Source Performance Standards for the Crude Oil and Natural Gas Industry at 40 C.F.R. Part 60, Subparts OOOO and OOOOa (NSPS). The two rules―the “policy amendments” and “technical amendments”―arise from EPA’s review of the NSPS pursuant to President Trump’s 2017 Executive Order 13782, “Promoting Energy Independence and Economic Growth,” which directs the agency to review existing regulations that potentially “burden the development or use of domestically produced energy resources” and to revise or rescind regulatory requirements if appropriate. The rules become effective 60 days after publication in the Federal Register.
The agency’s policy amendments revise NSPS Subpart OOOO (promulgated in 2012), regulating volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from certain new, reconstructed, and modified sources in the oil and natural gas industry, and NSPS Subpart OOOOa (promulgated in 2016), regulating VOC and methane emissions from specified new, reconstructed, and modified sources in the oil and gas industry. This rule provides that:
(1) The transmission and storage segments are no longer included in any source category regulated by the NSPS. These excluded emissions sources include transmission compressor stations, pneumatic controllers and underground storage vessels. To regulate a source category under the NSPS, the agency must first make a finding that the emissions of air pollutants from that source cause or contribute significantly to air pollution. These segments were not included in the original NSPS, and no such finding was made when these segments were added to the NSPS in the 2012 and 2016 final rules, making the regulation of the segments improper under the Clean Air Act (CAA). Accordingly, EPA amended the NSPS to remove these sources fromthe source...
September 4, 2020Court Enforces Settlement Agreement Despite Sunshine Act Violation
The Legal Intelligencer
Most lawsuits settle before disposition by the courts. Any settlement agreement is just that, an agreement between the parties, which to be enforceable must possess all the elements of a valid contract—offer, acceptance, and consideration or a meeting of the minds. In Pennsylvania, when one of the parties to a settlement agreement is a public entity, additional considerations come into play, most notably the Sunshine Act, 65 Pa. C.S. Sections 701-716.
Enacted by the General Assembly to facilitate more transparent means of governmental decision-making, the Sunshine Act has existed in some form since 1974, and places restraints upon a local agency’s ability to enter into contracts, including settlement agreements. Specifically, the Sunshine Act requires that all “official action,” including final decisions on the creation of liability by contract or the adjudication of rights, duties and responsibilities, must be taken at a duly advertised meeting open to the public. On the other hand, the Sunshine Act permits “deliberations” in six enumerated categories to take place in private “executive session.” One permissible reason to deliberate in private is to consult with the agency’s attorney regarding information or strategy in connection with litigation or with issues on which identifiable complaints are expected to be filed. However, any official action arising out of deliberations in executive session still must be taken at an open meeting. Thus, even if settlement of a lawsuit is discussed in executive session, it still must be voted upon at a public meeting subject to all of the Sunshine Act’s requirements.
Recently, the Pennsylvania Commonwealth Court considered the fate of a settlement agreement that was agreed upon by a public agency in executive session, but never voted upon at a public meeting. In Baribault v. Zoning Hearing Board of Haverford Township, No. 1211...
August 26, 2020Webinar: A Decade of Environmental & Regulatory Progress in the Natural Gas Industry
Pittsburgh, PA – Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation, in cooperation with Marcellus Drilling News and Natural Gas Now hosted a Think About Energy Briefing webinar on Wednesday August 26, 2020.
Today’s webinar featured Patrick Henderson of the Marcellus Shale Coalition, Kathryn Klaber of the Klaber Group and Joseph Reinhart of Babst Calland.
The webinar provided attendees with a look back at the environmental and regulatory progress that has occurred since the shale industry started in earnest over a decade ago. Panelists discussed the numerous legislative, regulatory and best management practices that have evolved through cooperation and respect for the communities and environment in which the industry operates.
George Stark, Director, External Affairs, Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation, moderated today’s discussion. “We are fortunate to have panelists who have been involved in the shale industry for more than a decade in the Commonwealth. In each of their respective roles, they all had one common goal – how can we get this done the right way. The industry has made tremendous strides over the past decade and this would not have happened without the expertise of panelists like we have today,” said Stark.
Patrick Henderson, Director of Regulatory Affairs for the Marcellus Shale Coalition, focused on the environmental improvements in Pennsylvania and their impact on the quality of life.
“We’ve made terrific progress over the past decade in Pennsylvania, and because of safe and responsible natural gas development, our environment is better protected and our air quality is dramatically improved,” said Henderson. “Pennsylvania has among the highest of environmental standards for ensuring that natural gas is developed safely and responsibly, and our state Department of environmental Protections own data demonstrates that natural gas operators have among the highest environmental compliance rates of any industry in the Commonwealth.”
Henderson highlighted the shale industry’s commitment to getting it right from...
August 26, 2020Pittsburgh’s space industry is thriving
(by Sue Ostrowski with Justine Kasznica)
As Pittsburgh and the surrounding region continue to attract and grow companies that support the space industry, a space collaborative is gaining ground to bring stakeholders together.
“If we do things right, Pittsburgh is well-positioned to be recognized as a center for research and commercialization of space-related technologies and innovation,” says Justine Kasznica, an attorney at Babst Calland.
Smart Business spoke with Kasznica about the growing number of local companies and regional stakeholders supporting space exploration.
How did the space collaborative begin?
In 2019, Astrobotic Technology Inc., a Pittsburgh-based space robotics company building lunar delivery capabilities, made national news when it was awarded an $80 million NASA grant for a mission to develop a lunar lander to deliver payload to the lunar surface. This year, Astrobotic was awarded an additional $200 million NASA grant for an historic mission to deliver a NASA rover to drill for water ice on the South Pole of the Moon. A group of individuals representing industry, academia, local and state government, as well as regional economic development organizations — all passionate about space — saw this as a unique opportunity to coalesce a broader network of existing regional assets to establish a space industry group in Pittsburgh.
What role have other institutions played in bringing Pittsburgh to the forefront of space-related industries?
Pittsburgh has been involved in space history since the Apollo era, having manufactured much of the steel and glass hardware, as well as communications technology, for the Apollo 11 mission. Today, the region’s advanced manufacturing capabilities and world-class expertise in artificial intelligence, robotics, and space transport and logistics can propel Pittsburgh to an even more dominant seat at the table.
Local universities, in partnership with industry and the federal government, are actively engaged in planetary science research, space navigation, mobility and robotics programs....
August 20, 2020EPA Finalizes Revisions to Oil and Natural Gas New Source Performance Standards
On August 13, 2020, the U.S. Environmental Protection issued two prepublication final rules related to the New Source Performance Standards for the Crude Oil and Natural Gas Industry at 40 C.F.R. Part 60, Subparts OOOO and OOOOa (NSPS). The two rules – the “Policy Amendments” and “Technical Amendments” (Rules) – arise from EPA’s review of the NSPS pursuant to President Trump’s 2017 Executive Order 13782, “Promoting Energy Independence and Economic Growth,” which directs the Agency to review existing regulations that potentially “burden the development or use of domestically produced energy resources” and to revise or rescind regulatory requirements if appropriate. The Rules become effective 60 days after publication in the Federal Register.
Policy Amendments. The Agency’s “Policy Amendments” amend NSPS Subpart OOOO (promulgated in 2012), regulating VOC emissions from certain new, reconstructed, and modified sources in the oil and natural gas industry, and NSPS Subpart OOOOa (promulgated in 2016), regulating VOC and methane emissions from specified new, reconstructed, and modified sources in the oil and gas industry. This rule provides that:The transmission and storage segments are no longer included in any source category regulated by the NSPS. These excluded emissions sources include transmission compressor stations, pneumatic controllers and underground storage vessels. To regulate a source category under the NSPS, the Agency must first make a finding that the emissions of air pollutants from that source cause or contribute significantly to air pollution. These segments were not included in the original NSPS, and no such finding was made when these segments were added to the NSPS in the 2012 and 2016 final rules, making the regulation of the segments improper under the Clean Air Act (CAA). Accordingly,...
August 20, 2020Five Babst Calland Attorneys Named as 2021 Best Lawyers® “Lawyers of the Year”, 32 Selected for Inclusion in The Best Lawyers in America©, and 12 Named to Best Lawyers® “Ones to Watch”
Babst Calland is pleased to announce that five lawyers were selected as 2021 Best Lawyers “Lawyer of the Year” in Pittsburgh, Pa. and Charleston, W. Va. (by BL Rankings). Only a single lawyer in each practice area and designated metropolitan area is honored as the “Lawyer of the Year,” making this accolade particularly significant.
Receiving this designation reflects the high level of respect a lawyer has earned among other leading lawyers in the same communities and the same practice areas for their abilities, professionalism, and integrity. Those named to the 2021 Best Lawyers “Lawyer of the Year” include:
Kevin J. Garber, Environmental Law “Lawyer of the Year” in Pittsburgh, Pa. – In addition to the “Lawyer of the Year” award, Kevin Garber was also listed in the 2021 Edition of The Best Lawyers in America in Environmental Law, Natural Resources Law, Energy Law, Water Law, and Litigation – Environmental.
Timothy M. Miller, Litigation – Environmental “Lawyer of the Year” in Charleston, W. Va. – In addition to the “Lawyer of the Year” award, Timothy Miller was also listed in the 2021 Edition of The Best Lawyers in America in Energy Law, Commercial Litigation, Bet-the-Company Litigation, Oil and Gas Law, Litigation – Environmental.
Christopher B. “Kip” Power, Natural Resources Law “Lawyer of the Year” in Charleston, W. Va. – In addition to the “Lawyer of the Year” award, Kip Power was also listed in the 2021 Edition of The Best Lawyers in America in Environmental Law, Natural Resources Law, Energy Law, Commercial Litigation, Mining Law, Oil and Gas Law, Litigation – Regulatory Enforcement (SEC, Telecom, Energy), Litigation – Environmental, Litigation – Land Use and Zoning, Litigation – Municipal.
Joseph K. Reinhart, Natural Resources Law “Lawyer of the Year” in Pittsburgh, Pa. – In addition to the “Lawyer of the Year” award, Joseph Reinhart was also listed in the 2021 Edition of The Best Lawyers in...
August 18, 2020FTC Investigation of Twitter for Alleged Privacy Violations Reinforces Need for Strong Privacy Policies and Practices
Emerging Technologies Perspectives
(by Ashleigh Krick)
On August 3, 2020, Twitter disclosed in a regulatory filing that it is under investigation by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) for allegations that the company used user phone numbers and email addresses for targeted advertising in violation of a 2011 Consent Agreement. Twitter estimates that it could face $150 to $250 million in losses due to legal fees and enforcement penalties resulting from this matter.
August 18, 2020Report Sees Shale Poised For Growth
American Oil & Gas Reporter
PITTSBURGH–Despite challenges, a maturing shale industry is poised for growth as natural gas and oil producers have slashed the costs of production, concludes the law firm of Babst Calland in its 10th annual energy industry report.
The 2020 Babst Calland Report–The U.S. Oil & Gas Industry: Federal, State, Local Challenges & Opportunities; Legal and Regulatory Perspective for Producers and Midstream Operators covers topics ranging from the industry’s business outlook, regulatory enforcement and rule-making to developments in pipeline safety and litigation trends, Babst Calland says, adding that its attorneys’ collective legal experience and perspectives on these and related business developments are highlighted in the report.
“The U.S. natural gas and oil industry has experienced tremendous growth and change since we first published this report in 2011,” comments Joseph K. Reinhart, shareholder and co-chair of Babst Calland’s Energy and Natural Resources Group. “Fast forward to an unprecedented 2020 with a pandemic, a corresponding economic slowdown, and an oversupply of natural gas and crude oil. With increased public and government pressure, sustained low prices, and less-reliable financing options, resiliency will continue to be the driving force of a dynamic energy market that continues to evolve.”
Reinhart says the past decade clearly has demonstrated the energy industry’s resilience amid price fluctuations, increasing regulation, opposition from nongovernmental organizations and policy changes. He says the industry has improved efficiencies, even as lower commodity pricing has squeezed margins, while also seeking new markets.
According to the Energy Information Administration, Reinhart cites, the United States exported more natural gas in 2019 by pipeline than it imported for the first time since 1985, mainly because of increased pipeline capacity to send natural gas to Canada and Mexico.
“Perhaps a more fossil fuel-friendly federal government and the promise of a predictable federal regulatory landscape helped boost capital spending and the prospects...