Articles, Newsletters & Advisories
August 5, 2020EPA Establishes Deadlines for Closing Certain CCR Surface Impoundments
On July 29, 2020, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Andrew Wheeler signed a pre-publication version of a final rule (the Rule) revising portions of EPA’s 2015 coal combustion residuals (CCR) landfill and impoundment regulations. The Rule becomes final 30 days after publication in the Federal Register.
In 2015, EPA promulgated regulations implementing national minimum criteria for new and existing CCR landfills and surface impoundments. A federal appellate court partially vacated and remanded portions of these regulations on August 21, 2018 (the court’s decision is covered in more detail in our prior Alert). Following the court’s decision, EPA published proposed rules in the Federal Register on December 2, 2019 and August 14, 2019, to address the court’s remand order and make other changes (the Proposed Rules).
The Rule includes the following key changes for CCR units:Reclassifies compacted-soil lined or “clay-lined” surface impoundments to “unlined,” meaning these structures must be retrofitted or closed; Establishes a revised date, April 11, 2021, by which CCR units must cease receiving waste and initiate closure or retrofit because: (1) they are unlined or were formerly “clay-lined” CCR surface impoundments; or (2) they failed the minimum depth to aquifer location standard; Revises the alternative closure provisions that would grant certain facilities additional time to develop alternative capacity to manage their CCR and non-CCR waste streams; Updates the annual groundwater monitoring and corrective action report requirements to make the data easier to understand for public review, including adding an executive summary requirement; and Revises the CCR website requirements to ensure that relevant facility information required by the regulations is immediately available to the public.
As compared with the deadlines in the December 2, 2019 proposed rule, the Rule gives the regulated community...
July 29, 2020New PHMSA Rule Allows Rail LNG Transport
Pipeline Safety Alert
On July 24, 2020, the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA or the Agency) published a Final Rule (Rule) in the Federal Register allowing railroads to transport liquefied natural gas (LNG) in modified DOT-113C120W (DOT-113) railcars designed to hold cryogenic flammable liquids. The rule was prompted by a 2017 Association of American Railroads (AAR) rulemaking petition to allow LNG transport by rail and Executive Order 13868, directing PHMSA to conduct a rulemaking allowing LNG to travel by rail tank car. In developing the Rule, PHMSA relied on safety data from other cryogenic flammable liquid shipments and from an existing special permit that already allows limited transportation of LNG by rail to demonstrate LNG could safely be transported. The Rule follows PHMSA’s October 24, 2019, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM). It takes effect on August 24, 2020, and PHMSA is allowing immediate voluntary compliance.
The rulemaking attracted significant attention from industry eager to meet increased natural gas demand, safety organizations such as the National Transportation Safety Board that raised concerns about transporting LNG, and from environmental groups. Numerous media reports on the Executive Order also increased public attention. Over 450 individuals and organizations submitted comments on the NPRM. In the NPRM and in the Rule, PHMSA noted that it lacks data about how many LNG rail shipments are likely to occur under the new rules. Currently, cryogenic flammable gases are transported rarely by railcar, but most commenters expect LNG rail shipments to quickly outstrip shipments of other cryogenic flammable gases.
Previously, LNG could only be transported by rail tank car with a special permit, or in smaller, portable tanks loaded onto a railcar. However, other cryogenic liquids that that pose risks similar to LNG, such as...
July 28, 2020New rules mean foreign investments in U.S. real estate fall under government review
The rules of international investment in U.S. real estate have changed, and failure to understand these new rules — issued by the Committee on Foreign Investments in the United States (CFIUS) in February — could cause huge headaches.
“If you’re not aware of or don’t understand the rules, that could cause a real estate deal to be undone by CFIUS, potentially resulting in financial harm or making a business liable to a foreign entity,” says Boyd A. Stephenson, an attorney at Babst Calland.
The president has the authority to reverse certain business transactions involving a foreign entity if it is determined they pose a national security risk. CFIUS advises the president on when to do that. In February 2020, that authority was extended to real estate ownership.
Smart Business spoke with Stephenson about the impact of the new rules.
What is CFIUS, and how does it work?
CFIUS is an interagency committee of the federal government that advises the president about mergers and acquisitions, financings, and real estate transactions that involve foreign actors. If a foreign entity wants to invest in or buy a cardboard box manufacturer, it’s generally not a concern. But if it wants to invest in a U.S. startup that’s developing technology with better AI, such an investment would result in a review from CFIUS to determine whether the deal should be cancelled based on national security concerns. This authority is retroactive, so if your deal consummates on April 15 and the transaction is reversed on May 1, you lose that equity stake.
How does the new rule extend into real estate transactions?
The new rule applies to real estate acquisitions that are a certain distance from an airport or seaport, or, for a military installation, up to being within the same county. You need to be aware of the rules,...
July 27, 2020Babst Calland Joins the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA)
Babst Calland is a member of the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA). A national trade association within the electric power industry, SEIA facilitates education, research, standards and collaboration with utilities, solution providers, and other energy industry leaders.
July 24, 2020Land use regulations and validity challenges to zoning ordinances persist
The PIOGA Press
This article is an excerpt of The 2020 Babst Calland Report, which represents the collective legal perspective of Babst Calland’s energy attorneys addressing the most current business and regulatory issues facing the oil and natural gas industry. A full copy of the Report is available by writing email@example.com.
Increasing industry headwinds have resulted in a slowdown of new permitting activity and an increase in ordinance restrictions on oil and gas development. Substantive validity challenges to zoning ordinances seeking to limit development to industrial areas have continued despite Pennsylvania Commonwealth Court’s clear pronouncements that local considerations control legislative decisions as to the location of development. Pennsylvania courts have also dealt with issues such as the legal standing and the timing of ordinance challenges.
For the full article, click here.
July 24, 2020IMPACTS OF COVID-19 ON EXISTING AND FUTURE PROJECTS
(by Marc Felezzola)
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a “new normal” that was likely not accounted for in pricing and scheduling for projects awarded prior to the pandemic (“existing projects”). As owners and contractors move forward with new projects in a post-pandemic world, there is incredible uncertainty to what extent COVID-19-related requirements will impact future projects (“Future Projects”). This article addresses some of the major risks that owners and contractors face on both existing projects and future projects.
Existing Projects A. Impacts The forced COVID-19 shutdown and subsequent resumption of existing projects will likely result in costs to contractors for demobilization and remobilization, downtime/standby, possible material and labor escalation costs, and extended general conditions (“primary impacts”). These primary impacts typically arise with every suspension or delay to a project and are not unique to COVID-19 forced stoppages. Whether and to what extent these costs are recoverable by contractors depends on the terms of the applicable contract, and in particular its force majeure language. However, because a force majeure event is by definition an event not caused by the owner or contractor, the parties typically bear their own costs associated with the delay caused by the force majeure event. The contractor cannot recover its delay/suspension costs but does get a schedule extension; and the owner cannot recover any costs it incurs as a result of the delay. If nothing else, the contractor will almost certainly be entitled to a change order extending the project schedule for at least the length of the forced shutdown.
Beyond the primary impacts are the costs and schedule impacts associated with resuming work under drastically different circumstances. These impacts range from new social distancing requirements and correlating prohibitions (e.g., limiting use of an elevator at the job site to one worker at a time; prohibitions on sharing...
July 23, 2020Can Technology Help Us Return to Work?
Emerging Technologies in a Time of Pandemic
COVID-19 restrictions are both easing and tightening in cities around the country, and a nationwide return to work seems further off than it did a month ago. But it is never too early to plan ahead. As the United States looks to safely return to work, offices are preparing for a radical shift, accelerating a need for emerging technologies to address challenges in the workplace. Separation, space, health, and cleanliness concerns are paramount, in an abrupt about-face from the pre-virus trends towards flexible workspaces and open floor plans. This has created a host of novel issues for business administrators, who are leveraging technology to keep work environments safe while maintaining a semblance of business normalcy in these unprecedented times.
July 14, 2020PADEP Proposes Significant Changes to Permitting Process for Stream and Wetland Impacts
RMMLF Water Law Newsletter
The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) is proposing comprehensive changes to its regulations and guidance regarding the permitting of obstructions and encroachments of waters of the commonwealth. See 25 Pa. Code ch. 105. The regulatory revisions, if promulgated, are expected to significantly change the chapter 105 permitting process by increasing the amount of time and effort necessary to complete an individual (joint) permit application and likely causing delays in obtaining a permit.
PADEP has presented the regulations and guidance to several of its advisory committees, including, most recently, the Water Resources Advisory Committee (WRAC) on May 28, 2020. The proposed revisions are expected to be presented to the Environmental Quality Board in the second half of 2020, with a 60-day public comment period to follow. PADEP’s draft final technical guidance document (TGD) on alternatives analysis requirements is expected to be finalized and published in coordination with the proposed regulatory revisions. Documents related to the proposed rulemaking are available here.
Proposed Regulatory Changes to Chapter 105 According to PADEP, the proposed chapter 105 revisions are intended to clarify existing requirements, update/delete outdated references, and codify existing practices. The revisions would add or change 18 definitions, revise several existing permit waivers, and add six new waivers under 25 Pa. Code § 105.12, including waivers for temporary environmental investigation activities and for temporary mats and pads used to minimize erosion and sedimentation at a wetland crossing. The proposal would also significantly expand requirements for individual permit applications under 25 Pa. Code § 105.13. Some of the notable proposed revisions are discussed below.
Alternatives Analysis. The proposed revisions would add criteria required for the alternatives analysis accompanying a permit application under section 105.13(e)(1)(viii). For example, project alternatives impacting wetlands would be required to...
July 14, 2020West Virginia DEP Sued Over Coal Mine Bonding Program
On May 18, 2020, we reported on a “notice of intent to sue” letter sent to the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP) on behalf of three environmental interest groups concerning West Virginia’s program for bonding of coal mining operations. As more fully explained in our May 18, 2020 article, available here, those groups demanded that WVDEP formally notify the federal Office of Surface Mining (OSM) of three events that they claimed would significantly affect the financial condition of the bonding program: (1) the insolvency of coal mine permittee “ERP Environmental Fund” and the associated receivership proceeding commenced by WVDEP; (2) an alleged lack of sufficient funding in the bonding program to cover the reclamation and water treatment costs at ERP’s operations; and (3) the potential insolvency of other mining companies.
On July 8, 2020, WVDEP formally notified OSM of the ERP proceedings, but denied that the circumstances surrounding ERP significantly affect the WVDEP bonding program. The very next day, the three groups filed suit against WVDEP in the federal District Court for the Southern District of Virginia. The complaint acknowledges WVDEP’s July 8, 2020 letter addressing the ERP proceedings, but alleges that the letter improperly failed to formally notify OSM of two other events the groups claim significantly affect the bonding program: (1) the bankruptcy proceedings of two other coal operators and the purported threatened insolvency of a third operator; and (2) WVDEP’s alleged inability to complete the required reclamation work at ERP’s operations with available funds.
The complaint requests that the court declare that WVDEP has failed to administer its regulatory program in accordance with the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and further requests entry of an order commanding WVDEP to do so. The groups...
July 8, 2020Babst Calland Joins SEPA
Babst Calland is a member of the Smart Electric Power Alliance (SEPA). An educational non-profit association within the electric power industry, SEPA facilitates education, research, standards and collaboration with utilities, solution providers, and other energy industry leaders.
July 8, 2020Energy Bar Association Welcomes Babst Calland Professional Members
Babst Calland is a member of the Energy Bar Association (EBA), an international, non-profit association established in 1946 to advance the professional excellence of those engaged in energy law, regulation and policy through professional education, exploring diverse viewpoints and building connections.
The EBA is a dynamic organization of attorney, energy professionals, students and academia interested in all facets of the practice of energy law. EBA’s mission to promote professional excellence and ethical integrity of its member in the practice, administration, and development of energy laws, regulations, and policies.
July 2, 2020Enforceability of Oral Change Orders Despite ‘No Oral Modification’ Clauses
The Legal Intelligencer
The recent decision in STI Oilfield Services v. The Williams Companies, Inc. f/k/a Access Midstream Partners, No. 2018-1003 C.P. (Pa. Com. Pl., Susquehanna County, March 16, 2020 Opinion), highlights the challenges those in the construction industry face when contractors or subcontractors seek additional compensation based upon an alleged oral change order or modification, even when the underlying contract contains a clear “no oral modification” (NOM) clause.
Most construction contracts contain one or more NOM clauses, including a requirement that valid change orders be in writing. Generally, these clauses provide that a contract cannot be modified absent a writing executed by the parties. This is intended to avoid having the carefully drafted written agreement of the parties set aside based on alleged oral conversations that are often supported only by memory or by piecing together evidence of conduct of the parties. Oral modifications naturally breed disagreements, misunderstandings and protracted litigation—everything a well-written contract seeks to avoid. However, Pennsylvania courts have not strictly enforced NOM clauses, especially with respect to construction contracts and alleged oral change orders for extra work.
In Universal Builders v. Moon Motor Lodge, 244 A.2d 10, 15 (Pa. 1968) the Pennsylvania Supreme Court held that, outside of a contract subject to the statute of frauds, a written “contract can be modified orally although it provides that it can be modified only in writing.” “Construction contracts typically provide that the builder will not be paid for extra work unless it is done pursuant to a written change order, yet courts frequently hold that owners must pay for extra work done at their oral direction.” “The effectiveness of a nonwritten modification in spite of a contract condition that the modifications must be written depends upon whether enforcement of the condition is or is not barred...
June 23, 2020The 2020 Babst Calland Report Highlights Legal and Regulatory Challenges for the U.S. Oil and Gas Industry
Oversupply and pandemic bring on need to adapt to a changing market
Babst Calland today published its 10th annual energy industry report: The 2020 Babst Calland Report – The U.S. Oil & Gas Industry: Federal, State, Local Challenges & Opportunities; Legal and Regulatory Perspective for Producers and Midstream Operators.
In this Report more than 50 energy attorneys provide perspective on the current state of the U.S. natural gas and oil production industry and its growth to historic highs due to more than a decade of advances in on-shore horizontal drilling and high-volume hydraulic fracturing. It asserts that despite current challenges, a maturing shale industry is poised for future growth as natural gas and oil producers have driven down the costs of production. Transportation options for moving these natural resources from growing areas of production to customers continue to be built, even with new hurdles from regulators and other stakeholders.
Joseph K. Reinhart, shareholder and co-chair of Babst Calland’s Energy and Natural Resources Group, said, “The U.S. natural gas and oil industry has experienced tremendous growth and change since we first published this Report in 2011. Fast forward to an unprecedented 2020 with a pandemic, a corresponding economic slow-down and oversupply of natural gas and crude oil. With increased public and government pressure, sustained low prices, and less-reliable financing options, resiliency will continue to be the driving force of a dynamic energy market that continues to evolve.”
The Babst Calland Report is an annual review of the issues and trends at the federal, state and local level in the oil and gas industry over the past year. The 102-page Report covers a range of topics from the industry’s business outlook, regulatory enforcement and rulemaking to developments in pipeline safety and litigation trends. The Firm’s collective legal experience and perspectives on these and...
June 22, 2020How to mitigate legal liability while reopening your business
(by Adam Burroughs with Molly Meacham)
As states begin to relax restrictions on social gatherings, businesses are trying to reopen in a manner that is safe for their employees, vendors, customers and clients. They’re also trying insulate themselves from the legal exposures they face as they work out a plan to get their business up and running.
“I’m getting a lot of questions from employers who want to do right on all of those fronts,” says Molly Meacham, a shareholder at Babst Calland. “They are really working hard, thinking through the issues, listening to state, local and federal government advice, all while trying to keep their businesses running.”
Smart Business spoke with Meacham about addressing the legal risks that come with operating during the pandemic.
What legal concerns do companies have as they reopen?
The most significant concern is that a company will have an outbreak at their workplace. If that happens, it means considering the company benefits employees should be entitled to, such as sick leave or short-term disability, if they are eligible for leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), if they are covered by Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA) and eligible for those leaves, or if they’re entitled to any accommodation under the Americans with Disabilities Act.
Another risk is that contracting the illness could lead to a lawsuit or workers’ compensation claim. In a classic workers’ compensation scenario, the employee would need to prove they contracted the virus at the workplace. Some states are reducing employees’ burden of proof, or covering COVID-19 illness for certain groups of employees. For those states that are not making changes, whether or not COVID-19 is covered by workers’ compensation is likely to be a hotly litigated issue.
The regulatory and legal burden on employers has increased dramatically with this pandemic. For example, the...
June 17, 2020Ninth Circuit denies emergency motion for partial stay of Montana district court’s NWP 12 vacatur
The PIOGA Press
On May 28, the Ninth Circuit denied the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ request for an emergency stay pending appeal of a Montana district court’s vacatur of Nationwide Permit (NWP) 12 in Northern Plains Resource Council, et al. v. Army Corps of Engineers, a challenge to the Keystone XL Pipeline. As a result of the denial, NWP 12 remains unavailable for the construction of new oil and gas pipelines. The ruling means continued permitting delays are likely for pipeline developers seeking federal authorization for stream and wetland crossings and any resulting discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (CWA).
A Montana district court’s April vacatur of NWP 12 was based on the judge’s determination that the Corps failed to comply with the Endangered Species Act (ESA) when NWP 12 was last issued in 2017. The decision was interpreted as a broad vacatur of NWP 12, extending beyond permitting of the Keystone XL Pipeline. In a significant positive development for permittees proposing work on existing pipelines, on May 11 the district court narrowed the scope of its original vacatur “to the construction of new oil and gas pipelines” with NWP 12 remaining “in place during remand insofar as it authorizes non-pipeline construction activities and routine maintenance, inspection, and repair activities on existing NWP 12 projects.”
For pipeline developers, however, the stay sought by the Corps represented the final possibility of continuing to conduct work under NWP 12 during the long appellate process. The Ninth Circuit denied the Corps’ request on grounds that the Corps had not demonstrated a likelihood of success on the merits or probability of irreparable harm if the stay was not granted.
The likely consequences of the denial...
June 17, 2020EQB publishes proposed rulemaking for control of VOC emissions from existing oil and natural gas sources
The PIOGA Press
Pennsylvania’s Environmental Quality Board (EQB) published a proposed rulemaking in the May 23 Pennsylvania Bulletin entitled “Control of VOC Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Sources.” 50 Pa.B. 2633 (www.pacodeandbulletin.gov/ Display/pabull?file=/ secure/pabulletin/data/ vol50/50- 21/684.html). This proposed rulemaking would have Pennsylvania adopt reasonably available control technology (RACT) requirements and RACT emission limitations for existing oil and natural gas sources of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions.
As proposed, the rule would apply to owners and operators of any of the following oil and natural gas sources of VOC emissions that were in existence on or before the effective date of this rulemaking: storage vessels (in all segments except natural gas distribution), natural gas-driven pneumatic controllers, natural gas-driven diaphragm pumps, centrifugal compressors and reciprocating compressors, and fugitive emission components.
This proposal is based on EPA’s October 2016 Control Techniques Guidelines (CTG) for the Oil and Gas Industry, which provide RACT requirements for VOC emissions from existing oil and gas sources. Pursuant to the federal Clean Air Act, EPA established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six “criteria pollutants,” which includes ground-level ozone. Ground level ozone is created in a photochemical reaction of oxides of nitrogen (another criteria pollutant) and VOCs in the presence of sunlight.
The federal statute requires any (i) existing major source of VOC emissions (generally more than 50 tons per year of VOC depending on location) in an ozone nonattainment area and (ii) any other source (i.e., minor sources) for which EPA has issued a CTG to implement RACT to control emissions, consistent with the issued CTG. Pennsylvania is in the northeast ozone transport region, which makes the Commonwealth nonattainment for ozone, and thus triggers RACT under federal law.
The Clean Air Act requires states to revise their State Implementation...
June 17, 2020Commonwealth Court Sees Spot Zoning, Overturns Industrial Rezoning
The Legal Intelligencer
For over 100 years, local governments have used zoning regulations, enabled by the police powers delegated from the states, to implement plans for the development of their communities. For just as long, objectors have challenged zoning regulations as exceeding this authority. The Commonwealth Court recently upheld such a challenge in Allen Distribution v. West Pennsboro Township Zoning Hearing Board, No 524 C.D. 2019 (Pa. Commw. Ct. May 11, 2020), finding that West Pennsboro’s decision to change the zoning of two parcels constituted illegal spot zoning.
Zoning ordinances generally enjoy a presumption of constitutional validity. However, an ordinance will be held to be unconstitutional if it is unreasonable, arbitrary or not substantially related to the police power interest it purports to serve. Thus, zoning enabling acts, such as the Pennsylvania Municipalities Planning Code, 53 P.S. Section 10101 et seq. (the MPC), require all zoning measures to be substantially related to the protection and preservation of the public health, safety, morality and welfare interests of its community.
Zoning regulations consist of a zoning map and zoning text. Those documents work in tandem; the map divides the municipality, or municipalities in cases of joint zoning, into “districts” while the text provides regulations for each district, imposes requirements for specific uses and outlines various procedures. Under the MPC, either the municipality or a landowner (including a leaseholder or potential buyer) can propose text and map amendments. The amendment process allows municipalities to improve their ordinances by, for example, adapting them to accommodate new and evolving uses. However, when used in a piecemeal fashion to achieve inconsistent goals, amendments may no longer have a reasonable relationship to the police power they must promote.
Objectors who believe a map or text amendment does not relate sufficiently to the police power can file...
June 16, 2020Appalachian Trail Not a Barrier to Atlantic Coast Pipeline
The United States Forest Service may grant permission for a natural gas pipeline to go underneath the Appalachian Trail, so says the United States Supreme Court in an opinion released on June 15, 2020. Seven of the nine justices voted to reverse a decision by the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals that had concluded the Forest Service lacked authority to do so for the Atlantic Coast Pipeline (ACP). Only Justice Sonia Sotomayor and Justice Elena Kagan dissented from the decision.
The ACP is a proposed 604-mile pipeline stretching from West Virginia to North Carolina. Approximately 16 miles of the pipeline route goes through the George Washington National Forest, which requires approval from the Forest Service. The Appalachian Trail, a 2,200-mile federally designated footpath from Mount Katahdin in Maine to Springer Mountain in Georgia, also passes through the George Washington National Forest with permission from the Forest Service. The National Park Service administers the Appalachian Trail through various arrangements with the Forest Service. At issue in this case is a 0.1-mile segment of the pipeline that would pass under the Appalachian Trail at a depth of approximately 600 feet. Both the entry and exit locations for this segment of the pipeline would be on private land, would not be visible from the Appalachian Trail, and would not disturb the surface of the trail.
In 2018, the ACP developers obtained the necessary authorizations from the Forest Service to place the pipeline through the National Forest and under the Appalachian Trail. Several organizations challenged these authorizations by arguing that the Forest Service lacked authority to authorize a pipeline to cross under the trail. The Fourth Circuit agreed and vacated the authorizations issued by the Forest Service.
In an opinion by Justice Clarence Thomas, the Court concluded that...
June 11, 2020Pa. Proposes Changes for Permitting Projects With Stream, Wetland Impacts
The Legal Intelligencer
The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) is proposing significant revisions to its regulations and guidance regarding the permitting of obstructions and encroachments of waters of the commonwealth under 25 Pa. Code Chapter 105. The regulatory revisions, if promulgated, are expected to significantly change the Chapter 105 permitting process by increasing the level of required effort to complete an individual (joint) permit application and potentially increasing the time for the PADEP to review such applications.
The PADEP has presented the regulations and guidance to several of its advisory committees, including, most recently, the Water Resources Advisory Committee (WRAC) on May 28. Later this year, the proposed revisions are expected to be presented to the Environmental Quality Board, with a public comment period to follow. The PADEP’s “draft final” technical guidance document (TGD) on alternatives analysis requirements is expected to be finalized and published in coordination with the proposed regulatory revisions.
Proposed Regulatory Changes to Chapter 105
Proposed revisions to Chapter 105 include the following:
Permit Waivers—Addition of six new permit waivers to 25 Pa. Code Section 105.12, including new waivers for temporary environmental investigation activities and for temporary mats and pads used to minimize erosion and sedimentation at wetland crossings.
Alternatives Analysis—Addition of criteria to the alternatives analysis requirements at 25 Pa. Code Section 105.13(e)(viii), including identification of the effects of “reasonably foreseeable future development” within the wetland or watercourse upstream and immediately downstream of the proposed project and demonstration that project alternatives impacting other regulated waters would meet the requirements of 25 Pa. Code Section 105.16, regarding environmental, social and economic balancing.
Impacts Analysis—Addition of requirements for impacts analyses under 25 Pa. Code Section 105.13(e)(x), including detailed analysis of the “potential secondary impacts” (undefined) of a proposed project on an expanded list of resources, including public water supplies,...
June 10, 2020Regulatory Challenges to Fully Utilizing Existing Technology
Emerging Technologies in a Time of Pandemic
On May 1st, Amazon Prime premiered Upload, the story of a software engineer whose consciousness is transferred to the cloud after his fully autonomous vehicle (AV) rear-ends another car. The accident takes place in 2033. By then, the show imagines, vehicles that drive themselves will be the default. We won’t spoil the ending. But, in the fictional 2033—only 13 years from now—the public is astounded when the vehicle is involved in a wreck. It is an entertaining take on the future. In reality, however, we’ve got a lot of regulations to update if autonomous vehicles (AVs) are going to play the role imagined in Upload.
That’s too bad, given the current state of affairs. As industry commentators have noted, in this time of pandemic AVs could have provided much needed assistance with long-haul shipments, non-contact deliveries of food and other goods, and contact-free transportation of the sick or elderly to and from medical appointments. Some have predicted that the benefits AVs provide during public health crises will help propel them to wider acceptance and regulatory approval. And while there is still much work to be done on that front, there is a solid foundation to build on.
June 10, 2020PHMSA Proposes Regulatory Reforms for Natural Gas Pipelines
Pipeline Safety Alert
On June 9, 2020, the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA or the Agency) published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) proposing amendments to the gas pipeline safety regulations at 49 C.F.R. Parts 191 and 192. PHMSA explained that the purpose of the NPRM is to ease regulatory burdens identified through internal agency review, petitions for rulemaking, and public comments. The Agency estimates that the proposed amendments will result in approximately $129 to $132 million in annualized cost savings, with the largest cost savings due to amendments related to farm taps and atmospheric corrosion inspections. Comments are due August 10, 2020.
The NPRM covers the following topics:
Proposed Exemptions from the Distribution Integrity Management Program RequirementsPHMSA is proposing to codify the policy announced in its March 2019 Exercise of Enforcement Discretion by allowing operators of farm taps to maintain pressure regulating devices on farm taps under either the distribution integrity management program (DIMP) requirements or 49 C.F.R. § 192.740. While not defined in the proposed Part 192 amendments in the NPRM, the preamble describes a farm tap as “individual gas service line directly connected to a gas transmission, production, or gathering pipeline.” PHMSA estimates that, based on information submitted by distribution operators, the proposal to allow operators to manage farm taps under DIMP or § 192.740 will result in nearly $42 million in annualized cost savings. PHMSA is also proposing to exempt farm taps originating from unregulated production and gathering pipelines from the DIMP requirements, the overpressure protection inspection requirements in § 192.740, and the annual reporting requirements in Part 191. PHMSA’s current position, recently reiterated in the Agency’s proposed farm tap Frequently Asked Questions posted on April 20, 2020, is that farm taps are regulated as...
June 5, 2020USEPA Significantly Revises Section 401 Water Quality Certification Process
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has pre-published a final rule that streamlines the water quality certification requirements under Section 401 of the Clean Water Act (CWA), 33 U.S.C. § 1341 (the 401 Rule). Section 401 requires any applicant for a federal license or permit which will, or may, result in a discharge to waters of the United States (WOTUS) to obtain a certification that the discharge will comply with applicable water quality requirements from the applicable state, authorized tribe or interstate agency (Certifying Authority).
The rulemaking, found at 40 CFR Part 121, is in response to President Donald Trump’s April 10, 2019 Executive Order 13868, which identified Section 401 as “one source of confusion and uncertainty hindering the development of energy infrastructure” and directed USEPA to update its regulations and guidance. USEPA characterizes the 401 Rule as the agency’s first “holistic” analysis of Section 401 since the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act amendments (i.e., the CWA).
The 401 Rule is expected to benefit applicants for federal permits or licenses which will, or may, result in a discharge from a point source to WOTUS, including applicants seeking National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Section 404 permits, as well as hydropower and pipeline licenses issued by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) by (1) narrowing and streamlining the certification process, (2) limiting the scope of Certifying Authority review/response, and (3) capping the amount of time that Certifying Authorities can review a certification. The Rule comes in response to state attempts to delay natural gas pipelines and other energy-related facilities through extended Section 401 certification processes, requiring applicants to address a number of considerations unrelated to water quality, including climate change.
Key takeaways from the 401 Rule include the following:
The scope of...
June 4, 2020What to Expect When You’re Expecting OSHA to Visit Your Reopened Workplace
The Legal Intelligencer
(by Brian Lipkin)
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is the federal agency that enforces workplace safety and health rules. On May 19, OSHA issued two enforcement memos outlining its plans to inspect workplaces during the COVID-19 pandemic. These memos took effect on May 26.
As workplaces reopen, here is what employers can expect:High Exposure Workplace Inspections
When employees go back to work, OSHA anticipates an influx of COVID-19-related complaints. As a result, OSHA will prioritize inspections of workplaces with “high” and “very high” risks of COVID-19 exposure, including medical facilities, nursing homes and clinical laboratories.
OSHA is less likely to visit workplaces with medium- and low-risk levels, meaning that employees have less frequent and less close contact with the public. So, retail stores and offices are unlikely to have an OSHA compliance officer pay a visit. If OSHA receives a complaint about a medium- or low-risk workplace, it will typically send a letter, ask the employer to respond in writing and close the inspection without any in-person contact.Allowances for Unavailable Equipment
OSHA requires all businesses to provide workers with personal protective equipment. Depending on the type of workplace, equipment to protect against COVID-19 can include masks, gloves and hand sanitizer.
Having shopped at Target recently, OSHA compliance officers understand many businesses can’t purchase these items because they are in limited supply. OSHA will use its discretion in citing employers that have acted in good faith, so employers should document their attempts to purchase any equipment that is unavailable.
If a business can’t purchase the right protective equipment, it should consider changing workplace rules to limit exposure risks. For example, capacity controls or schedule changes could limit the number of people who come close into close contact with each other.
Next, the enforcement memos suggest that businesses should consider the pros...
June 1, 2020Federal Court in West Virginia Rejects NPDES Permit Modifications through WVDEP Administrative Orders
(by Kip Power)
Companies holding National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits issued by the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP) (known as WV/NPDES Permits) should take note that any adjustments to the effluent limits in those permits that are made through WVDEP administrative orders (as part of enforcement settlements or otherwise) may provide less than complete protection against future enforcement actions. On March 24, 2020, the federal District Court for the Northern District of West Virginia issued yet another decision in a line of cases establishing that WV/NPDES Permits may only be modified through a regulatory process that involves public notice, an opportunity for comments, and compliance with all of the other procedures mandated by WVDEP regulations for such permit changes. Ohio Valley Environmental Coalition and The Sierra Club v. Eagle Natrium, LLC, Civil Action No. 5:19-cv-00236 (March 24, 2020 Memorandum Opinion and Order) (Bailey, J.) (updated and revised, April 13, 2020).
In Eagle Natrium, Plaintiffs filed a citizen suit under the federal Clean Water Act (CWA) based on numerous self-reported discharges from the Defendant’s chlor-alkali plant located in Natrium, West Virginia that allegedly exceeded the effluent limits for (among other parameters) mercury and benzene hexachloride (BHC) found in the Defendant’s WV/NPDES Permit. The Defendant sought summary judgment on the basis that the WVDEP had previously commenced and was diligently prosecuting an enforcement action against it for the same violations, which serves as a statutory bar to CWA citizen suits.
In ruling against the Defendant with respect to the alleged violations of its mercury limits, the Court found that the WVDEP’s pending civil action sought to enforce interim mercury limits that had been established by that agency through an administrative order (and two subsequent extensions of that order) that had not been the subject of public notice and...
May 29, 2020Ninth Circuit Denies Emergency Motion for Partial Stay of Montana District Court’s NWP 12 Vacatur
As discussed in detail in a prior Alert, a Montana district court’s April vacatur of NWP 12 was based on the judge’s determination that the Corps failed to comply with the Endangered Species Act (ESA) when NWP 12 was last issued in 2017. The decision was interpreted as a broad vacatur of NWP 12, extending beyond permitting of the Keystone XL Pipeline. In a significant positive development for permittees proposing work on existing pipelines, on May 11, 2020, the district court narrowed the scope of its original vacatur “to the construction of new oil and gas pipelines” with NWP 12 remaining “in place during remand insofar as it authorizes non-pipeline construction activities and routine maintenance, inspection, and repair activities on existing NWP 12 projects.”
For pipeline developers, however, the stay sought by the Corps represented the final possibility of continuing to conduct work under NWP 12 during the long appellate process. The Ninth Circuit denied the Corps’ request on grounds that the Corps had not demonstrated a likelihood of success on the merits or probability of irreparable harm if the...