May 22, 2024

Navigate the Current Uncertainty on FinCEN Matters

Pittsburgh, PA

Firm Alert

Babst Calland Stands Ready to Advise All Clients on FinCEN Matters – Let Us Help Your Company Navigate the Current Uncertainty

(by Chris Farmakis, Susanna Bagdasarova, Kate Cooper, and Dane Fennell)

As part of our commitment to keeping clients informed about regulatory changes that may impact their business, we want to draw your attention to the uncertainty surrounding the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) Beneficial Ownership Information Reporting Rule (the “Rule”) under the Corporate Transparency Act (CTA). By now, you have likely heard about this Rule from your accountant or business colleagues. If not, the Rule requires most entities to disclose information about individuals who directly or indirectly own or control such entities. The intended purpose of the Rule is to enhance transparency and combat financial crimes by requiring certain covered entities to report information about their beneficial owners to FinCEN. Most entities in the U.S. will likely be required to comply with the Rule but some might be exempt if your entity meets one of the 23 identified exemptions. Entities formed before January 1, 2024, have until 2025 to comply; entities formed in 2024 have a 90-day compliance period. Pretty straight forward, right? NOPE, NOT AT ALL. The Rule is currently being challenged in the courts on constitutional grounds, and reporting requirements have been paused for certain entities following an injunction issued by the Northern District of Alabama on March 1, 2024, which ruled the CTA unconstitutional. Babst Calland is closely following these evolving developments. What should your company do in the meantime?

Given the legal uncertainty, many law firms and accounting advisors are declining to advise their clients on their compliance obligations.

May 17, 2024

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Finalizes National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for Certain PFAS Chemicals

Pittsburgh, PA

PIOGA Press

(by Jean Mosites and Mackenzie Moyer)

On April 10, 2024, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized the National Primary Drinking Water Regulation (NPDWR) Rule regulating six per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) under the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 300f et seq.  This final rule establishes the first-ever nationally enforceable drinking water standards for PFAS.  The final rule establishes Maximum Contaminant Level Goals (MCLGs) and Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid and its ammonium salt (HFPO-DA, commonly known as GenX chemicals), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS).  The final rule also establishes a Hazard Index MCLG and MCL for mixtures containing two or more of PFNA, HFPO-DA, PFHxS, and perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS).

For PFOA and PFOS, the final rule sets MCLGs – non-enforceable health-based goals that represent the maximum concentration of a contaminant in drinking water at which there is no known or anticipated negative effect on a person’s health – at 0 parts per trillion (ppt).  The MCLs, which are legally enforceable, are set at 4.0 ppt for PFOA and PFOS.  The MCLs represent the maximum concentrations allowed in drinking water that can be delivered to users of a public water system and are informed by factors such as available treatment technologies and cost.  As a change from the proposed rule, the final rule sets MCLGs and MCLs for PFNA, PFHxS, and HFPO-DA at 10 ppt.

For mixtures of two or more of PFNA, PFHxS, HFPO-DA, and PFBS, the final rule establishes a Hazard Index due to the chemicals’ likely co-occurrence.  The Hazard Index is calculated by dividing the concentration of each of the four PFAS compounds by its Health-Based Water Concentration (HBWC;

May 17, 2024

FTC Finalizes Non-Compete Ban, Legal Challenges Promptly Follow

Pittsburgh, PA

TEQ Hub

(by Alex Farone)

On April 23, 2024, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) voted 3-2 to publish its proposed final rule banning most noncompetition agreements, or “non-competes.” The final rule was published on May 7, 2024 in the Federal Register and becomes effective on September 4, 2024, but legal challenges to the FTC’s authority to issue this ban will likely result in a stay in enforcement of the ban until litigation is resolved.

As of the effective date, the final rule would ban new non-competes with employees, independent contractors, and volunteers nationwide, on the basis that non-competes are an unfair method of competition and therefore a violation of Section 5 of the FTC Act, with one exception. The ban will not apply to a non-compete that is entered into pursuant to a bona fide sale of a business entity, the persona’s ownership interest in a business entity, or all or substantially all of a business entity’s operating assets.

The final rule will also void pre-existing non-competes, with two exceptions. First, existing non-competes for senior executives will remain enforceable after the effective date of the final rule. A “senior executive” is defined as a worker earning more than $151,164 annually who is in a policy-making position, meaning a company president, chief executive officer or equivalent, or any other person who has final authority to make policy decisions that control significant aspects of a business entity. Second, the ban will not apply where an existing non-compete has been breached and a cause of action accrued prior to the effective date.

The final rule will additionally require employers to provide “clear and conspicuous notice” to all workers, other than senior executives, with existing non-competes by the effective date stating that the non-compete will not be, and cannot legally be, enforced.

May 16, 2024

Pennsylvania Climate Emissions Reduction Act (PACER) Retains Key Aspects of the RGGI Regulation

Pittsburgh, PA

Environmental Alert

(by Kevin Garber)

On May 8, 2024, a large group of Democrat members of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives introduced H.B. 2275, the Pennsylvania Climate Emissions Reduction Act, into the General Assembly. The Shapiro administration announced PACER earlier this year as an approach to creating a Pennsylvania-specific carbon reduction program instead of joining the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative. The actual language of the bill unsurprisingly retains key aspects of the RGGI regulation that the Environmental Quality Board promulgated on April 23, 2022. The Commonwealth Court declared that regulation void on November 1, 2023 as being an unconstitutional tax and enjoined the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection from enforcing it. However, the Court’s decision does not remove the regulation from existence.

As proposed, PACER directs DEP, within 120 days of enactment, to review the base CO₂ allowance budget of 78 million tons that DEP established in the RGGI regulation in 2022 (which declines to 58 million tons in 2030) and recommend revisions to that budget, if necessary, after considering the effect of a new base budget on jobs, consumers, and the environment. DEP is not given specific authority to consider how a revised CO₂ budget would affect the reliability of the PJM grid or the potential for emission leakage outside Pennsylvania.[1] These were two of the biggest industry objections to the RGGI regulation during its development.

After DEP develops a revised CO₂ budget, the EQB would promulgate a final base budget by adopting a final-omitted regulation (a procedure that removes otherwise applicable public notice and comment opportunities), after which DEP would conduct a Pennsylvania-run auction of CO₂ allowances using the procedure already established by the RGGI regulation.

May 6, 2024

‘Another tool on your belt’: Pittsburgh cops embrace jiu jitsu training

Pittsburgh, PA

TRIBLive

(by Justin Vellucci)

For Tim Novosel, Brazilian jiu jitsu is more about control than contact.

The Pittsburgh police commander — who launched a jiu jitsu training program for city cops about two years ago — talked about the importance the martial art places on focus instead of force. Nearby, a dozen officers grappled nearby on an ocean of blue mats in Pittsburgh police’s North Side training academy.

The officers’ limbs — each cloaked in a navy-blue gi, a robe-style top that’s part of jiu-jitsu’s uniform — furled around each other trying to gain an upper hand. Trainers in black gi leaned in periodically to help officers with dominant positions or demonstrate how to master moves like the Triangle Choke.

“It’s like human chess, it’s such a thinking man’s sport,” said Novosel, 51, a North Side native who took over leadership in February of Pittsburgh’s Zone 2 station, which covers Downtown. “You’re always examining the body and seeing how you can fit.”

“I’m passionate about it because it you came and told me, ‘Patrol over there,’ I’d rather go out without my gun than without my jiu jitsu,” he added. “It’s another tool on your belt.”

A couple of generations ago — long before Novosel joined the Pittsburgh force in 2007 — cops trained by boxing, the commander told TribLive.

Today, he said, Pittsburgh police integrate Brazilian jiu jitsu into teaching recruits the bureau’s defensive tactics — and keeping more tenured officers fit and focused.

About 120 officers — three of them women — have taken part in the bureau’s voluntary jiu jitsu training, with 50 coming to sessions regularly.

Blurred Lines: The Ongoing Battle Between iLottery and iGaming

Harrisburg, PA

The Legal Intelligencer

(by Casey Alan Coyle and Michael Libuser)

Online gaming is a booming industry.  In fiscal year 2022–23, the Pennsylvania Lottery’s iLottery program generated $872.5 million in eInstant sales, while online gambling revenues topped $2 billion in Pennsylvania last year according to published reports.  But behind the scenes, a dispute has arisen that pits the Pennsylvania Lottery against privately owned casinos.  The fight is over legislation that prohibits the Pennsylvania Department of Revenue (the “Department”), the administrator of the Lottery, from offering products that “simulate casino-style lottery games” as part of the iLottery program.  The Pennsylvania Supreme Court recently construed the meaning of that phrase in Greenwood Gaming & Entertainment, Inc. v. Department of Revenue, 306 A.3d 319 (Pa. 2023), and remanded the case to the Commonwealth Court with instructions to apply a corresponding standard.  The question now is whether, and to what extent, the Commonwealth Court will be able to establish a boundary between iLottery games and the online products offered by casinos.

Act 42

On March 15, 1972, the Pennsylvania Lottery sold its first ticket for a weekly drawing.  The Lottery, then only a year into its existence, operated without competition and continued to do so for decades.  Over the years, with the rising popularity of Lottery games, including now-ubiquitous “scratch-offs,” came a tide of competition and technology that shepherded in a new legislative era for Pennsylvania gambling rules.  First came the Race Horse Development and Gaming Act (the “Gaming Act”), which authorized slot machines.  Six years later, the Legislature expanded the Gaming Act to include table games.  Then, in 2014, the General Assembly amended the State Lottery Law (the “Lottery Law”) to prohibit the Department from offering “[i]nternet instant game[s]” and “simulated casino-style lottery game[s]” through the Lottery, absent further legislative authorization.

April 29, 2024

EPA Finalizes Rule Expanding Federal CCR Program

Pittsburgh, PA

Environmental Alert

(by Donald C. Bluedorn II, Gary E. Steinbauer, and Mackenzie M. Moyer)

On April 25, 2024, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized changes to the coal combustion residuals (CCR) regulations to now regulate inactive surface impoundments at inactive electric utilities, known as legacy CCR surface impoundments. The Final Rule also imposes requirements on an additional, new category of CCR units, known as CCR management units, or CCRMUs. Regulated legacy CCR surface impoundments will need to comply with the requirements in Subpart D, as articulated in the Final Rule, beginning as early as six months after the date of publication of the Final Rule in the Federal Register and CCRMUs will need to comply with specified requirements beginning 21 months after publication.

The Final Rule is being promulgated in response to the August 21, 2018 opinion by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit in Utility Solid Waste Activities Group, et al. v. EPA, in which the Court vacated and remanded the provision of the 2015 CCR Rule that exempted inactive impoundments at inactive facilities from regulation. EPA is also expanding the CCR Rule to address CCRMUs due to the associated risks from the direct placement of CCR on the land; according to information obtained from EPA since 2015, these previously unregulated units are contaminating groundwater and pose risks similar to the risks associated with currently regulated activities. In the last year, EPA has focused on CCR Rule enforcement, adding “protecting communities from coal ash contamination” as one of EPA’s six National Enforcement and Compliance Initiatives for fiscal years 2024 through 2027.

April 25, 2024

FTC Finalizes Non-Compete Ban, Legal Challenges Promptly Follow

Pittsburgh, PA

Employment and Labor Alert

(by Alex Farone)

On April 23, 2024, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) voted 3-2 to publish its proposed final rule banning most noncompetition agreements, or “non-competes.” The final rule becomes effective 120 days after its date of publication in the Federal Register, but legal challenges to the FTC’s authority to issue this ban will likely result in a stay in enforcement of the ban until litigation is resolved.

As of the effective date, the final rule would ban new non-competes with employees, independent contractors, and volunteers nationwide, on the basis that non-competes are an unfair method of competition and therefore a violation of Section 5 of the FTC Act, with one exception. The ban will not apply to a non-compete that is entered into pursuant to a bona fide sale of a business entity, the persona’s ownership interest in a business entity, or all or substantially all of a business entity’s operating assets.

The final rule will also void pre-existing non-competes, with two exceptions. First, existing non-competes for senior executives will remain enforceable after the effective date of the final rule. A “senior executive” is defined as a worker earning more than $151,164 annually who is in a policy-making position, meaning a company president, chief executive officer or equivalent, or any other person who has final authority to make policy decisions that control significant aspects of a business entity. Second, the ban will not apply where an existing non-compete has been breached and a cause of action accrued prior to the effective date.

The final rule will additionally require employers to provide “clear and conspicuous notice” to all workers, other than senior executives, with existing non-competes by the effective date stating that the non-compete will not be, and cannot legally be, enforced.

April 24, 2024

EPA Designates Two PFAS as CERCLA Hazardous Substances and Issues Related Enforcement Policy Focused on “Major PRPs”

Pittsburgh, PA

Environmental Alert

(by Matt Wood and Jean Mosites)

On April 17, 2024, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a pre-publication version of its long-anticipated final rule designating perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), and their salts and structural isomers, as “hazardous substances” under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA).  The final rule will be effective 60 days after publication in the Federal Register.  PFOA and PFOS are the two most prominent and studied compounds in a “family” of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) consisting of thousands of manmade chemicals.  PFAS have been widely used for decades in various applications, including manufacturing water-, stain-, and heat-resistant consumer products, e.g., waterproof clothing and food packaging, and as ingredients in aqueous film forming foams (AFFF) used to extinguish certain kinds of chemical fires.  Research indicates that exposure to PFAS, which are prevalent and persistent in the environment, may cause various health-related impacts.

EPA’s designation of PFOA and PFOS as CERCLA hazardous substances is unprecedented and not uncontroversial because it is the first time the agency has made such designations using its authority under CERCLA Section 102, 42 U.S.C. § 9602.  Until now, CERCLA has always defined hazardous substances by reference to other statutes (e.g., the Clean Water Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act).  To reach its conclusion that the designations were warranted, EPA says it evaluated available scientific and technical information about PFOA and PFOS to determine whether they “may present a substantial danger to public health welfare or the environment” as contemplated by CERCLA section 102(a).  EPA also conducted a “totality of the circumstances” analysis considering multiple factors, including benefits versus costs. 

April 19, 2024

EPA Agrees to Impose Novel Water Quality Requirements for West Virginia Streams

Charleston, WV

Environmental Alert

(by Kip Power and Robert Stonestreet)

The federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has agreed to impose novel water quality requirements for West Virginia streams to resolve a lawsuit filed by multiple environmental advocacy organizations.  On March 18, 2024, the Sierra Club, the West Virginia Highlands Conservancy, and the West Virginia Rivers Coalition (Plaintiffs) filed a lawsuit against EPA in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of West Virginia (at Huntington). The suit alleges that EPA has improperly failed to take action under the federal Clean Water Act with respect to certain “biologically impaired” streams located in the Lower Guyandotte River Watershed in West Virginia. Specifically, Plaintiffs assert that because the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP) has failed to do so, EPA must step in and develop pollution reduction plans (known as “total maximum daily loads” or “TMDLs”) for those streams.

However, rather than seek to reduce levels of conventional pollutants (e.g., iron, aluminum, etc.), the lawsuit addresses the concentration of dissolved minerals in the water (often referred to as “total dissolved solids” or conductivity). According to the Plaintiffs, certain levels of conductivity lead to an adverse impact (known as “ionic toxicity”) on specific species of aquatic life. Neither West Virginia nor EPA has developed a specific water quality standard for total dissolved solids or conductivity. A wide range of activities can affect conductivity levels of a stream, including wastewater treatment and earth disturbances associated with construction activities or mining. Naturally occurring conductivity levels can also vary widely among different streams.

About 10 days after the suit was filed, Plaintiffs and EPA announced a settlement, in the form of a proposed Consent Decree (CD).

April 17, 2024

Governor’s Proposed PACER and PRESS Legislation Seek to Lower GHG Emissions

Pittsburgh, PA and Washington, DC

PIOGA Press

(By Kevin Garber and Jessica Deyoe)

On March 13, 2024, Governor Shapiro’s office announced the Pennsylvania Climate Emissions Reduction Initiative (PACER) and the Pennsylvania Reliable Energy Sustainability Standard (PRESS) legislative proposals. Together, these two initiatives seek to lower greenhouse gas emissions and promote the use of alternative energy for the electric energy grid in Pennsylvania. We note that first, as of the date of this article, the language of the bills has not been made publicly available and second, these initiatives are not mutually exclusive, so it is possible the legislature may pass only one of them.

Pennsylvania Climate Emissions Reduction Initiative (PACER)

PACER is a Pennsylvania-specific-cap-and-invest program that, if passed, would set a declining cap on carbon emissions from Pennsylvania’s fossil fuel-fired power plants and require them to purchase credits from the Commonwealth to offset emissions. It would also remove Pennsylvania from the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI). PACER Credits would be tradeable emission credits, similar to RGGI credits; however, non-profit entities will not be allowed to purchase PACER credits to remove them from the market. This program would direct DEP to conduct a Pennsylvania-run auction similar to the RGGI program. DEP could be allowed to delegate the implementation of the auction to an agent but retain enforcement authority. If passed, DEP will be required to review the Pennsylvania Base Budget established under the currently enjoined RGGI regulation within 120 days to determine whether a new Base Budge should be established. The new regulation, if needed, would be promulgated by the streamlined Final Omit regulatory process.

Revenue from the sale of CO2 allowances under the PACER Program would fund the following recipients and programs: (1) consumers as an on-bill rebate by the Public Utility Commission;

April 15, 2024

Public Posting 2.0: High Court Creates Test for When Social Media Posts Are State Action

Pittsburgh, PA

The Legal Intelligencer

(by Harley Stone, Anna Jewart and Alex Farone)

In August of 2023, we discussed the ongoing trend of recent cases to blur the line between public officials’ “public” and “private” digital communications and social media, focusing primarily on two 2023 Pennsylvania Commonwealth Court cases – Penncrest School District v. Cagle and Wyoming Borough v. Boyer.  In these cases the courts were called upon to decide when a public official’s own social media posts are “public” and therefore subject to disclosure under the Pennsylvania Right-to-Know Law (RTKL).  While release of messages or comments intended to be kept private can be embarrassing, on March 15, 2024, the U.S. Supreme Court weighed in on an issue that more directly impacts the legal interests of public officials: when does a public official’s social media activity on a personal account constitute state action under 42 U.S.C. §1983, subjecting the public official to liability?

Section 1983 provides a cause of action against “[e]very person who, under color of any statute, ordinance, regulation, custom, or usage of any State” deprives someone of a civil right granted under the U.S. constitutional or federal statute.  It protects against acts attributable to a State (interpreted to include local government agencies), not those of a private person.  When a person associated with a State or local government agency acts in a manner that allegedly deprives someone of a federal constitutional or statutory right, the question therefore arises as to whether that act rose to the level of “state action” that triggers potential §1983 liability or was merely the private conduct of that individual.  The line between private conduct and state action can be hard to draw, and the age of social media has only made such distinctions more difficult. 

April 15, 2024

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Finalizes National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for Certain PFAS Chemicals

Pittsburgh, PA

Environmental Alert

(by Jean Mosites and Mackenzie Moyer)

On April 10, 2024, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized the National Primary Drinking Water Regulation (NPDWR) Rule regulating six per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) under the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 300f et seq.  This final rule establishes the first-ever nationally enforceable drinking water standards for PFAS.  The final rule establishes Maximum Contaminant Level Goals (MCLGs) and Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid and its ammonium salt (HFPO-DA, commonly known as GenX chemicals), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS).  The final rule also establishes a Hazard Index MCLG and MCL for mixtures containing two or more of PFNA, HFPO-DA, PFHxS, and perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS).

For PFOA and PFOS, the final rule sets MCLGs – non-enforceable health-based goals that represent the maximum concentration of a contaminant in drinking water at which there is no known or anticipated negative effect on a person’s health – at 0 parts per trillion (ppt).  The MCLs, which are legally enforceable, are set at 4.0 ppt for PFOA and PFOS.  The MCLs represent the maximum concentrations allowed in drinking water that can be delivered to users of a public water system and are informed by factors such as available treatment technologies and cost.  As a change from the proposed rule, the final rule sets MCLGs and MCLs for PFNA, PFHxS, and HFPO-DA at 10 ppt.

For mixtures of two or more of PFNA, PFHxS, HFPO-DA, and PFBS, the final rule establishes a Hazard Index due to the chemicals’ likely co-occurrence.  The Hazard Index is calculated by dividing the concentration of each of the four PFAS compounds by its Health-Based Water Concentration (HBWC;

April 12, 2024

Trends and Developments in New Transportation and Energy Technologies

Pittsburgh, PA

Pittsburgh Business Times

(By James Chen)

The transportation industry is in “the midst of a revolution,” changing the paradigm of how we transport people and goods on the nation’s public roads, said James Chen. Chen, who heads the Transportation Technology and Energy practice at Babst Calland, speaks about trends and developments in new transportation and energy technologies.

“For the first time in 100 years, we’re shifting that technology completely to a whole new powertrain structure that uses stored energy in the form of electricity and motors to power vehicles,” Chen said.

Evolving from the dominant technology of internal combustion engines – gas and diesel-powered vehicles – the industry has seen incremental improvement, moving from leaded to unleaded gas, the use of catalytic converters and on-board diagnostic systems.

Now, the concept of a robust battery pack of stored energy that moves electric vehicles through harsh changes in weather, vibration and more is serving as a platform for new methods for stable, stationary environments outside the transportation realm, as in connectivity, data and data sharing.

The electric vehicle is also providing a platform in the area of autonomy – vehicles that almost drive themselves, recognizing lines on the road, pedestrians, other vehicles and roads signs.

“What you’re basically talking about is machine learning,” he said. “And machine learning, at the end of the day, is artificial intelligence.”

These new technologies are also relevant, Chen adds, because battery stored energy can help with demand across energy sectors as the focus moves from primarily fossil fuel burning to additional types of energy generation like wind, solar, hydro-power and nuclear. All are necessary to satisfy increasing demands for energy in the United States and abroad.

April 5, 2024

Trends and Developments in New Transportation and Energy Technologies

Washington, DC

Washington Business Journal

(By James Chen)

The transportation industry is in “the midst of a revolution,” changing the paradigm of how we transport people and goods on the nation’s public roads, said James Chen. Chen, who heads the Transportation Technology and Energy practice at Babst Calland, speaks about trends and developments in new transportation and energy technologies.

“For the first time in 100 years, we’re shifting that technology completely to a whole new powertrain structure that uses stored energy in the form of electricity and motors to power vehicles,” Chen said.

Evolving from the dominant technology of internal combustion engines – gas and diesel-powered vehicles – the industry has seen incremental improvement, moving from leaded to unleaded gas, the use of catalytic converters and on-board diagnostic systems.

Now, the concept of a robust battery pack of stored energy that moves electric vehicles through harsh changes in weather, vibration and more is serving as a platform for new methods for stable, stationary environments outside the transportation realm, as in connectivity, data and data sharing.

The electric vehicle is also providing a platform in the area of autonomy – vehicles that almost drive themselves, recognizing lines on the road, pedestrians, other vehicles and roads signs.

“What you’re basically talking about is machine learning,” he said. “And machine learning, at the end of the day, is artificial intelligence.”

These new technologies are also relevant, Chen adds, because battery stored energy can help with demand across energy sectors as the focus moves from primarily fossil fuel burning to additional types of energy generation like wind, solar, hydro-power and nuclear. All are necessary to satisfy increasing demands for energy in the United States and abroad.

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